B0724 Effects of hydrogen in aluminium and its alloys

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These alloys include some of the highest strength heat treatable aluminum alloys. The most common applications for the 2xxx series alloys are aerospace, military vehicles and rocket fins. These are moderate strength nonheat-treatable materials that retain strength at elevated temperatures and are seldom used for major structural applications. The most common applications for the 3xxx series alloys are cooking utensils, radiators, air conditioning condensers, evaporators, heat exchangers and associated piping systems. Silicon Si 4xxx — The addition of silicon to aluminum reduces melting temperature and improves fluidity.

Silicon alone in aluminum produces a nonheat-treatable alloy; however, in combination with magnesium it produces a precipitation hardening heat-treatable alloy. Consequently, there are both heat-treatable and nonheat-treatable alloys within the 4xxx series. Silicon additions to aluminum are commonly used for the manufacturing of castings. The most common applications for the 4xxx series alloys are filler wires for fusion welding and brazing of aluminum.

Magnesium Mg 5xxx - The addition of magnesium to aluminum increases strength through solid solution strengthening and improves their strain hardening ability. These alloys are the highest strength nonheat-treatable aluminum alloys and are, therefore, used extensively for structural applications.

The 5xxx series alloys are produced mainly as sheet and plate and only occasionally as extrusions. The reason for this is that these alloys strain harden quickly and, are, therefore difficult and expensive to extrude. Some common applications for the 5xxx series alloys are truck and train bodies, buildings, armored vehicles, ship and boat building, chemical tankers, pressure vessels and cryogenic tanks. Magnesium and Silicon Mg 2 Si 6xxx — The addition of magnesium and silicon to aluminum produces the compound magnesium-silicide Mg 2 Si.

The formation of this compound provides the 6xxx series their heat-treatability. The 6xxx series alloys are easily and economically extruded and for this reason are most often found in an extensive selection of extruded shapes. These alloys form an important complementary system with the 5xxx series alloy. The 5xxx series alloy used in the form of plate and the 6xxx are often joined to the plate in some extruded form.

Some of the common applications for the 6xxx series alloys are handrails, drive shafts, automotive frame sections, bicycle frames, tubular lawn furniture, scaffolding, stiffeners and braces used on trucks, boats and many other structural fabrications. The zinc substantially increases strength and permits precipitation hardening.

Some of these alloys can be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking and for this reason are not usually fusion welded. Other alloys within this series are often fusion welded with excellent results. Some of the common applications of the 7xxx series alloys are aerospace, armored vehicles, baseball bats and bicycle frames. Iron Fe — Iron is the most common impurity found in aluminum and is intentionally added to some pure 1xxx series alloys to provide a slight increase in strength. Chromium Cr — Chromium is added to aluminum to control grain structure, to prevent grain growth in aluminum-magnesium alloys, and to prevent recrystallization in aluminum-magnesium-silicon or aluminum-magnesium-zinc alloys during heat treatment.

Synthesis gas syngas , in particular is a mixture of primarily H 2 and CO, sometimes including some amounts of C0 2 , that can be obtained via gasification of any organic feedstock, such as coal, coal oil, natural gas, biomass, or waste organic matter. In addition to coal, biomass of many types has been used for syngas production and represents an inexpensive and flexible feedstock for the biological production of renewable chemicals and fuels.

Carbon dioxide can be provided from the atmosphere or in condensed from, for example, from a tank cylinder, or via sublimation of solid C0 2. Other gaseous carbon forms can include, for example, methanol or similar volatile organic solvents. The reducing equivalents, particularly NADH, NADPH, and reduced ferredoxin, can serve as cofactors for the RTCA cycle enzymes, for example, malate dehydrogenase, fumarate reductase, alpha- ketoglutarate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase alternatively known as 2-oxoglutarate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase, alpha-ketoglutarate synthase, or 2-oxoglutarate synthase ,.

The electrons from these reducing equivalents can alternatively pass through an ion-gradient producing electron transport chain where they are passed to an acceptor such as oxygen, nitrate, oxidized metal ions, protons, or an electrode. The reductive TCA cycle was first reported in the green sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobium limicola Evans et al, Proc. Similar pathways have been characterized in some prokaryotes proteobacteria, green sulfur bacteria and thermophillic Knallgas bacteria and sulfur-dependent archaea Hugler et al.

Some methanogens and obligate anaerobes possess incomplete oxidative or reductive TCA cycles that may function to synthesize biosynthetic intermediates Ekiel et al. The key carbon-fixing enzymes of the reductive TCA cycle are alpha- ketoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, pyruvate :ferredoxin oxidoreductase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. Additional carbon may be fixed during the conversion of. Many of the enzymes in the TCA cycle are reversible and can catalyze reactions in the reductive and oxidative directions.

However, some TCA cycle reactions are irreversible in vivo and thus different enzymes are used to catalyze these reactions in the directions required for the reverse TCA cycle. These reactions are: 1 conversion of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA, 2 conversion of fumarate to succinate, and 3 conversion of succinyl-CoA to alpha-ketoglutarate. Alternatively, citrate lyase can be coupled to acetyl-CoA synthetase, an acetyl-CoA transferase, or phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase to form acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate from citrate. The conversion of succinate to fumarate is catalyzed by succinate dehydrogenase while the reverse reaction is catalyzed by fumarate reductase.

The reverse reaction is catalyzed by alpha-ketoglutarate :ferredoxin oxidoreductase. An organism capable of utilizing the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle to enable production of acetyl-CoA-derived products on 1 CO, 2 C0 2 and H 2 , 3 CO and C0 2 , 4 synthesis gas comprising CO and H 2 , and 5 synthesis gas or other gaseous carbon sources comprising CO, C0 2 , and H 2 can include any of the following enzyme activities: ATP-citrate lyase, a citrate lyase, a citryl-CoA synthetase, a citryl-CoA lyase, aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha- ketoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, succinyl-CoA synthetase, succinyl-CoA transferase, fumarate reductase, fumarase, malate dehydrogenase, acetate kinase, phosphotransacetylase, acetyl-CoA synthetase, acetyl-Co A transferase, pyruvate :ferredoxin oxidoreductase,.

NAD P H:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, hydrogenase, and ferredoxin see Figure Enzymes and the corresponding genes required for these activities are described herein above. Carbon from syngas or other gaseous carbon sources can be fixed via the reverse TCA cycle and components thereof. Specifically, the combination of certain carbon gas-utilization pathway components with the pathways for formation of a primary alcohol, a fatty acyl-CoA, a fatty ester, or a wax from acetyl-CoA results in high yields of these products by providing an efficient mechanism for fixing the carbon present in carbon dioxide, fed exogenously or produced endogenously from CO, into acetyl-CoA.

In some embodiments, a primary alcohol, a fatty acyl-CoA, a fatty ester, or a wax pathway in a non-naturally occurring microbial organism of the invention can utilize any combination of 1 CO, 2 C0 2 , 3 H 2 , or mixtures thereof to enhance the yields of biosynthetic steps involving reduction, including addition to driving the reductive TCA cycle. In some embodiments a non-naturally occurring microbial organism having a primary alcohol, a fatty acyl-CoA, a fatty ester, or a wax pathway includes at least one exogenous nucleic acid encoding a reductive TCA pathway enzyme.

The at least one exogenous nucleic acid is selected from an ATP-citrate lyase, a citrate lyase, a citryl-CoA synthetase, a citryl- CoA lyase, a fumarate reductase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, aconitase, and an alpha- ketoglutarate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase; and at least one exogenous enzyme selected from a carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, a hydrogenase, a NAD P H: ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and a ferredoxin, expressed in a sufficient amount to allow the utilization of 1 CO, 2 C0 2 , 3 H 2 , 4 C0 2 and H 2 , 5 CO and C0 2 , 6 CO and H 2 , or 7 CO, C0 2 , and H 2.


  1. Pdf B Effects Of Hydrogen In Aluminium And Its Alloys .
  2. ASTM Complete Index | Microkumo's Blog.
  3. Effect of hydrogen in aluminium and aluminium alloys: A review | SpringerLink.
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In some embodiments a method includes culturing a non-naturally occurring microbial organism having a primary alcohol, a fatty acyl-CoA, a fatty ester, or a wax pathway also comprising at least one exogenous nucleic acid encoding a reductive TCA pathway enzyme. The at least one exogenous nucleic acid is selected from an ATP-citrate lyase, a citrate lyase, a citryl-CoA synthetase, a citryl-CoA lyase, a fumarate reductase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, aconitase, and an alpha-ketoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase.

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Additionally, such an organism can also include at least one exogenous enzyme selected from a carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, a hydrogenase, a NAD P H:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and a ferredoxin, expressed in a sufficient amount to allow the utilization of 1 CO, 2 C0 2 , 3 H 2 , 4 C0 2 and H 2 , 5 CO and C0 2 , 6 CO and H 2 , or 7 CO, C0 2 , and H 2 to produce a product. In some embodiments a non-naturally occurring microbial organism having a primary alcohol, a fatty acyl-CoA, a fatty ester, or a wax pathway further includes at least one exogenous nucleic acid encoding a reductive TCA pathway enzyme expressed in a sufficient amount to enhance carbon flux through acetyl-CoA.

The at least one exogenous nucleic acid is selected from an ATP-citrate lyase, a citrate lyase, a citryl-CoA synthetase, a citryl-CoA lyase, a fumarate reductase, a pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, aconitase, and an alpha-ketoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase.

The at least one exogenous nucleic acid is selected from a carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, a hydrogenase, an NAD P H: ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and a ferredoxin. In some. In some embodiments, the non-naturally occurring microbial organism having a primary alcohol, a fatty acyl-CoA, a fatty ester, or a wax pathway includes two exogenous nucleic acids, each encoding a reductive TCA pathway enzyme.

In some embodiments, the non- naturally occurring microbial organism having a primary alcohol, a fatty acyl-CoA, a fatty ester, or a wax pathway includes three exogenous nucleic acids each encoding a reductive TCA pathway enzyme. In some embodiments, the non-naturally occurring microbial organism includes three exogenous nucleic acids encoding an ATP-citrate lyase, a fumarate reductase, and an alpha-ketoglutarate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase.

In some embodiments, the non-naturally occurring microbial organism includes three exogenous nucleic acids encoding a citrate lyase, a fumarate reductase, and an alpha-ketoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase. In some embodiments, the non-naturally occurring microbial organism includes four exogenous nucleic acids encoding a pyruvate :ferredoxin oxidoreductase; a.

In some embodiments, the non-naturally occurring microbial organism includes two exogenous nucleic acids encoding a CO dehydrogenase and an H 2 hydrogenase. In some embodiments, the non-naturally occurring microbial organisms having a primary alcohol, a fatty acyl-CoA, a fatty ester, or a wax pathway further include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an enzyme selected from a pyruvate :ferredoxin oxidoreductase, an aconitase, an isocitrate dehydrogenase, a succinyl-CoA synthetase, a succinyl-CoA transferase, a fumarase, a malate dehydrogenase, an acetate kinase, a phosphotransacetylase, an acetyl-CoA synthetase, an NAD P H:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and combinations thereof.

In some embodiments, the non-naturally occurring microbial organism having a primary alcohol, a fatty acyl-CoA, a fatty ester, or a wax pathway further includes an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an enzyme selected from carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, acetyl-CoA synthase, ferredoxin, NAD P H:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and combinations thereof.

In some embodiments, the non-naturally occurring microbial organism having a primary alcohol, a fatty acyl-CoA, a fatty ester, or a wax pathway utilizes a carbon feedstock selected from 1 CO, 2 C0 2 , 3 C0 2 and H 2 , 4 CO and H 2 , or 5 CO, C0 2 , and H 2. In some embodiments, the non-naturally occurring microbial organism having a primary alcohol, a fatty acyl-CoA, a fatty ester, or a wax pathway utilizes hydrogen for reducing equivalents. In some embodiments, the non-naturally occurring microbial organism having a primary alcohol, a fatty acyl-CoA, a fatty ester, or a wax pathway utilizes CO for reducing equivalents.

In some embodiments, the non-naturally occurring microbial organism having a primary alcohol, a fatty acyl-CoA, a fatty ester, or a wax pathway utilizes combinations of CO and hydrogen for reducing equivalents. In some embodiments, the non-naturally occurring microbial organism having a primary alcohol, a fatty acyl-CoA, a fatty ester, or a wax pathway further includes one or more nucleic acids encoding an enzyme selected from a pfiosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, a pyruvate carboxylase, and a malic enzyme.

In some embodiments, the non-naturally occurring microbial organism having a primary alcohol, a fatty acyl-CoA, a fatty ester, or a wax pathway further includes one or more nucleic acids encoding an enzyme selected from a malate dehydrogenase, a fumarase, a fumarate reductase, a succinyl-CoA synthetase, and a succinyl-CoA transferase. In some embodiments, the non-naturally occurring microbial organism having a primary alcohol, a fatty acyl-CoA, a fatty ester, or a wax pathway further includes at least one exogenous nucleic acid encoding a citrate lyase, an ATP-citrate lyase, a citryl-CoA synthetase, a citryl-CoA lyase, an aconitase, an isocitrate dehydrogenase, a succinyl-CoA synthetase, a succinyl-CoA transferase, a fumarase, a malate dehydrogenase, an acetate kinase, a phosphotransacetylase, an acetyl-CoA synthetase, and a ferredoxin.

It is understood by those skilled in the art that the above-described pathways for increasing product yield can be combined with any of the pathways disclosed herein, including those pathways depicted in the figures. One skilled in the art will understand that, depending on the pathway to a desired product and the precursors and intermediates of that pathway, a particular pathway for improving product yield, as discussed herein above and in the examples, or combination of such pathways, can be used in combination with a pathway to a desired product to increase the yield of that product or a pathway intermediate.

In one embodiment, the invention provides a non-naturally occurring microbial organism, comprising a microbial organism having a primary alcohol pathway comprising at least one exogenous nucleic acid encoding a primary alcohol pathway enzyme expressed in a sufficient amount to produce a primary alcohol; said non-naturally occurring microbial organism further comprising: i a reductive TCA pathway comprising at least one exogenous nucleic acid encoding a reductive TCA pathway enzyme, wherein said at least one exogenous nucleic acid is selected from an ATP-citrate lyase, a citrate lyase, a citryl-CoA synthetase, a citryl- CoA lyase, a fumarate reductase, and an alpha-ketoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase; ii a reductive TCA pathway comprising at least one exogenous nucleic acid encoding a reductive TCA pathway enzyme, wherein said at least one exogenous nucleic acid is selected from a pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase, a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, a.

Alloys of Aluminium

In a specific embodiment, said microbial organism comprising i further comprises an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an enzyme selected from a pyruvate :ferredoxin oxidoreductase, an aconitase, an isocitrate dehydrogenase, a succinyl-CoA synthetase, a succinyl-CoA transferase, a fumarase, a malate dehydrogenase, an acetate kinase, a phosphotransacetylase, an acetyl-CoA synthetase, an. NAD P H:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, ferredoxin, and combinations thereof.

In another specific embodiment, said microbial organism comprising ii further comprises an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an enzyme selected from an aconitase, an isocitrate dehydrogenase, a succinyl-CoA synthetase, a succinyl-CoA transferase, a fumarase, a malate dehydrogenase, and combinations thereof. In another specific embodiment, said microbial organism comprises two, three, four, five or six exogenous nucleic acids each encoding a primary alcohol, a fatty acyl-CoA, a fatty ester or a wax pathway enzyme.

In another specific embodiment, said microbial organism comprises four exogenous nucleic acids encoding malonyl-CoA-independent FAS pathway enzymes comprising ketoacyl-CoA acyltransferase or ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase and enoyl-CoA reductase; and two exogenous nucleic acids encoding acyl-reduction pathway enzymes comprising an acyl-CoA reductase and an alcohol dehydrogenase. In another specific embodiment, said microbial organism comprising i comprises two, three or four exogenous nucleic acids each encoding a reductive TCA pathway enzyme.

In another specific embodiment, said microbial organism comprising ii comprises two, three or four exogenous nucleic acids each encoding a reductive TCA pathway enzyme. In another specific embodiment, said at least one exogenous nucleic acid in said non-naturally occurring microbial organism is a heterologous nucleic acid.

In another specific embodiment, said non- naturally occurring microbial organism is in a substantially anaerobic culture medium.

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In another specific embodiment, said exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acyl-reduction pathway enzyme in said non-naturally occurring microbial organism comprises an enzyme having acyl-CoA reductase and alcohol dehydrogenase activity, e. In another embodiment, said non-naturally occurring microbial organism further comprises an acyl-reduction pathway comprising an acyl-CoA hydrolase, an acyl-CoA transferase or an acyl-CoA ligase; a carboxylic acid reductase and an alcohol dehydrogenase. In another specific embodiment, said primary alcohol comprises an alcohol having between 4- 24 carbon atoms, e.

In another embodiment, the invention provides a non-naturally occurring microbial organism, comprising a microbial organism having a fatty acyl-CoA pathway comprising at least one exogenous nucleic acid encoding a fatty acyl-CoA pathway enzyme expressed in a sufficient amount to produce a fatty acyl-CoA; said non-naturally occurring microbial organism further comprising: i a reductive TCA pathway comprising at least one exogenous nucleic acid encoding a reductive TCA pathway enzyme, wherein said at least one exogenous nucleic acid is selected from an ATP-citrate lyase, a citrate lyase, a citryl-CoA synthetase, a citryl-CoA lyase, a fumarate reductase, and an alpha-ketoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase; ii a reductive TCA pathway comprising at least one exogenous nucleic acid encoding a reductive TCA pathway enzyme, wherein said at least one exogenous nucleic acid is selected from a pyruvate :ferredoxin oxidoreductase, a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, a.

In another specific embodiment, said microbial organism comprises four exogenous nucleic acids encoding malonyl-CoA-independent FAS pathway enzymes comprising ketoacyl-CoA acyltransferase or ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase and enoyl-CoAreductase. In another specific embodiment, said non-naturally occurring microbial organism is in a substantially anaerobic culture medium.

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